Sources and Works cited

The following sources have been cited in the Relentless Resilience report, online campaign and microsite.

  • Abedi, M. (2019, November 2). Why a UN declaration on Indigenous rights has struggled to become Canadian law. Global News. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/6101723/undrip-indigenous-relations-canada/
  • Amnesty International. (n.d.). What is police brutality? Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/police-brutality/
  • Anderssen, E. (2017, March 29). What homelessness looks like for women in Canada. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/what-homelessness-looks-like-for-women-in-canada/article34482334/
  • Angus Reid Institute. (2014, December 5). Canadian Public Opinion Poll on Sexual Harassment at Work. Retrieved from http://angusreid.org/content/uploads/2014/12/2014.12.05-Sexual-Harassment-at-work.pdf
  • Anyangwe, E. (2015, October 05). Misogynoir: Where racism and sexism meet. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/oct/05/what-is-misogynoir
  • Apolitical. (2017, September 22). Domestic violence victims need help, fast – in Iceland, they’re now getting it. Retrieved from https://apolitical.co/en/solution_article/domestic-violence-iceland-police-keeping-window-open
  • Atrain Education. (2017). 3. Types of Intimate Partner Violence. Retrieved from https://www.atrainceu.com/content/3-types-intimate-partner-violence#:~:text=The%20Centers%20for%20Disease%20Control,%2C%20stalking%2C%20and%20psychological%20aggression.
  • Aura Freedom, Kokkoros, M. (2018/2019). Project Impact Report. Human Trafficking Peer Prevention Project – Aura Freedom. Email info@aurafreedom.org for a copy of the report.
  • Bailey, P., Ford, A. R., & Martin, K. (2006, February). Women and Health. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/women-and-health
  • Baker, C. K., Billhardt, K. A., Warren, J., Rollins, C., & Glass, N. E. (2010). Domestic violence, housing instability, and homelessness: A review of housing policies and program practices for meeting the needs of survivors. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(6), 430–439. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2010.07.005
  • Bartlett, G. (2018, April 16). ‘Revenge porn’ law will allow people to sue those who share intimate photos | CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/law-intimate-images-sharing-revenge-porn-newfoundland-1.4621141
  • Bauder, H. (2013). Why We Should Use the Term Illegalized Immigrant. Retrieved from https://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/rcis/documents/RCIS_RB_Bauder_No_2013_1.pdf
  • Bauder, H. (2015, May 19). Illegalised migrants and temporary foreign workers: the new international segmentation of labour. Retrieved from https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/ beyond-trafficking-and-slavery/illegalised-migrants-and-temporary-foreign-workers-new-international-seg/
  • Beattie, S., & Hutchins, H. (2015). Shelters for abused women in Canada, 2014. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14207-eng.pdf?st=kZq4ajTs
  • Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. (1995). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/events/pastevents/pdfs/Beijing_Declaration_and_Platform_for_Action.pdf
  • Bender, E. (2004). PTSD, Other Disorders Evident in Kids Who Witness Domestic Violence. Psychiatric News, 39(11), 14–50. doi: 10.1176/pn.39.11.0390014a
  • Blackburn Center. (2019, August 14). What Is Misogyny? Retrieved from https://www.blackburncenter.org/post/2019/08/14/what-is-misogyny
  • Brake, J. (2018, November 28). People who kill Indigenous women punished less than those who kill non-Indigenous women, Senator’s study finds. Retrieved from https://aptnnews.ca/2018/11/28/people-who-kill-indigenous-women-punished-less-than-those-who-kill-non-indigenous-women-senators-study-finds-2/
  • Brean, J. (2019, June 11). Child marriage ‘legal and ongoing’ in Canada, researcher finds. Retrieved from https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/child-marriage-legal-and-ongoing-in-canada-researcher-finds
  • Burczycka, M. (2019, December 12). Section 2: Police-reported intimate partner violence in Canada, 2018. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00018/02-eng.htm
  • Business & Human Rights Resources Centre. (2020, February 6). Canada: Parliamentary report requests Govt. develop legislation that motivates business to eliminate child & forced labour. Retrieved from https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/canada-parliamentary-report-requests-govt-develop-legislation-that-motivates-business-to-eliminate-child-forced-labour
  • Butterfly 1 – Lam, E. (2018). Behind the rescue: How Anti-Trafficking Investigations and Policies Harm Migrant Sex Workers. Butterfly. Retrieved from https://576a91ec-4a76-459b-8d05-4ebbf42a0a7e.filesusr.com/ugd/5bd754_bbd71c0235c740e3a7d444956d95236b.pdf
  • Butterfly 2 – Mui, L. & Lam, E. (2018). Fanny’s Story (A migrant Sex Worker Who Was Arrested and Detained in Canada). Butterfly. Retrieved from https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/5bd754_26e05b9179164105bca95697ba43887b.pdf
  • Butterfly 3 – Lam, E. (2018). Survey on Toronto Holistic Practitioners’ Experiences with Bylaw Enforcement and Police. Butterfly. Retrieved from https://576a91ec-4a76-459b-8d05-4ebbf42a0a7e.filesusr.com/ugd/5bd754_6d780ceba3cb4f6c85de4d3e9e0b7475.pdf
  • Butterfly 4 – Malla, A., Lam, E., van der Meulen, E., & Peng, HS. J. (2019). Beyond Tales of Trafficking: A Needs Assessment of Asian Migrant Sex Workers in Toronto. Butterfly. Retrieved from https://576a91ec-4a76-459b-8d05-4ebbf42a0a7e.filesusr.com/ugd/5bd754_a35d8e085c21475fa97e1ff759d26648.pdf
  • Butterfly 5 – Lam, E. (2018). Understanding Migrant Sex Workersmigration Sex Work ≠ Trafficking. Butterfly. Retrieved from https://576a91ec-4a76-459b-8d05-4ebbf42a0a7e.filesusr.com/ugd/5bd754_5826c5ca074f408988ee248d5f614219.pdf
  • Butterfly 6. (2019). Stories of migrant sex workers. Butterfly. Retrieved from https://576a91ec-4a76-459b-8d05-4ebbf42a0a7e.filesusr.com/ugd/5bd754_b8357a1ec3b7482b9255294e85fa0a84.pdf
  • Canadian Centre for Child Protection Inc, Cybertip.ca. (n.d.). Sextortion. Retrieved from https://www.cybertip.ca/app/en/internet_safety-sextortion
  • Canadian Criminal Code – Justice Laws Website. (2020). Canadian Criminal Code. Retrieved from https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-46/
  • Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability – CFOJA; Dawson, M., Sutton, D., Carrigan, M., and Grand’Maison, V. (2019). #Callitfemicide: Understanding gender related killings of women and girls in Canada 2019. Retrieved from https://femicideincanada.ca/callitfemicide2019.pdf
  • Canadian Labour Congress. (2014). Can Work be Safe, When Home Isn’t? Initial Findings of a Pan-Canadian Survey on Domestic Violence and the Workplace. Retrieved from http://makeitourbusiness.ca/sites/makeitourbusiness.ca/files/DVWork_Survey_Report_2014_EN_0.pdf
  • Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses – CNWSTH. (2016, April). Shelter Voices. Retrieved from http://endvaw.ca/content/uploads/2016/04/ShelterVoices-2016-WEB.pdf
  • Canadian Public Health Association. (n.d.). Homeless at risk prenatal (HARP) program; Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved from https://www.cpha.ca/homeless-risk-prenatal-harp-program-toronto-ontario
  • Canadian Women Foundation. (n.d.). Gender based violence fact sheet. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/the-facts/gender-based-violence/
  • Canadian Women Foundation. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment Fact sheet. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/the-facts/sexual-assault-harassment/
  • Canadian Women Foundation. (n.d.). Women and Leadership in Canada Fact sheet. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/the-facts/women-and-leadership-in-canada/
  • Canadian Women Foundation. (n.d.). Women in poverty fact sheet. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/the-facts/womens-poverty/
  • Canadian Women’s Foundation, Fox, N. (2016, August 16). Street Harassment Isn’t a Compliment. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/blog/street-harassment-isnt-a-compliment/
  • Canadian Women’s Foundation. (2016). Fact Sheet: Moving Women Out Of Violence. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/content/uploads/2017/09/FactSheet-VAWandDV_Feb_2018-Update.pdf
  • Canadian Women’s Foundation. (n.d.). Barriers for girls fact sheet. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/the-facts/barriers-for-girls/
  • Canadian Women’s Foundation. (2020, August 04). COVID-19’s Linked to More Gender-Based Violence – Here’s Why. Retrieved from https://canadianwomen.org/blog/covid-19-pandemic-gender-based-violence/
  • Canadian Women’s Health Network. (2013). Hypersexualization of young girls: What are the issues? Should we be worried? Retrieved from https://cwhn.ca/en/hypersexualizationprimer2
  • CARED Collective (Calgary Anti-Racism Education). (2020). Forms of Racism. Retrieved from https://www.aclrc.com/forms-of-racism
  • Carleton University Equity and Inclusive Communities. (2016). Getting the Facts. Retrieved from https://carleton.ca/sexual-violence-support/what-is-sexual-assault/getting-the-facts/
  • CBC News. (2013, March 9). Canada falling behind on women on corporate boards. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/canada-falling-behind-on-women-on-corporate-boards-1.1313277
  • CBC News. (2014, June 14). Toronto a ‘hub’ for human trafficking, report says. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-a-hub-for-human-trafficking-report-says-1.2675941
  • CBC News. (2015, April 29). Posting explicit images now a criminal offence, advocate says | CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/posting-explicit-images-now-a-criminal-offence-advocate-says-1.3054113
  • CBC News. (2015, March 19). Women now hold 8.5% of Canada’s top jobs. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/women-now-hold-8-5-of-canada-s-top-jobs-1.3001744
  • CBC News. (2019, December 27). ‘A beautiful person’: Toronto trans activist Julie Berman identified as homicide victim. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/julie-berman-toronto-trans-dead-1.5409429
  • CBC News. (2019, October 3). Here’s a list of cuts and program changes the Ford government has backtracked on. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/doug-ford-ontario-cuts-backtrack-1.5308060
  • CBC News. (2020, April 24). Gunman’s resemblance to police officer made chase dangerous and complicated, say RCMP. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/mass-shooting-rcmp-investigation-press-conference-live-1.5542859
  • CCI Research Inc. (2019, March 19). Summary Report of the Student Voices on Sexual Violence Survey. Retrieved from https://files.ontario.ca/tcu-summary-report-student-voices-on-sexual-violence-survey-en-2019-03.pdf
  • Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Intimate partner violence. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Violence Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/intimatepartnerviolence/index.html
  • Chief Commissioner’s Presentation to the Independent Senators Group on Bill C-16. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.chrc-ccdp.gc.ca/eng/content/chief-commissioners-presentation-independent-senators-group-bill-c-16
  • City of Toronto. (2020, February 4). 2018 Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from https://www. toronto.ca/city-government/council/2018-council-issue-notes/indigenous-peoples/
  • Conroy, S., & Cotter, A. (2017, July 11). Self-reported sexual assault in Canada, 2014. Statistics, Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14842-eng.htm
  • Cotter, A. (2018). Violent Victimization of Women with Disabilities, 2014. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54910-eng.pdf?st=SZ7aAJ6K
  • Cotter, A., & Savage, L. (2019, December 5). Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00017-eng.htm
  • Council of Europe. (2020). Combating Gender Stereotypes and Sexism. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/genderequality/gender-stereotypes-and-sexism
  • Courage to Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.couragetoact.ca/
  • CTV News. (2020, February 5). Police seek public’s help in investigation of slain sex worker in Quebec City. Retrieved from https://montreal.ctvnews.ca/police-seek-public-s-help-in-investigation-of-slain-sex-worker-in-quebec-city-1.4798069
  • Dangerfield, K. (2018, May 1). 57 women killed in Canada this year – experts link misogyny to femicide. Global News. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/4178841/femicide-canada-women-killed-2018-misogyny/
  • Dangerfield, K. (2019, June 3). From genocide to human trafficking: Key takeaways from the MMIWG inquiry. Global News. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/5345789/national-inquiry-mmiwg-key-takeaways/
  • DAWN – DisAbled Women’s Network of Canada. (2018). Factsheet: Women with Disabilities and Violence. Retrieved from https://www.dawncanada.net/main/content/uploads/2014/03/ English-Violence-January-2014.pdf
  • DAWN – DisAbled Women’s Network of Canada. (2019). More than a footnote: A research report on Women and Girls with disabilities in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.dawncanada.net/media/uploads/page_data/page-64/beyond_crpd_final_eng_(2).pdf
  • DAWN – DisAbled Women’s Network of Canada. (2019). Violence against Women with DisAbilities and Deaf Women: An Overview. DAWN & Western Education: Center for Research & Education on Violence Against Women and Children. Retrieved from https://www.dawncanada.net/main/content/uploads/2013/12/Learning-Brief-12.pdf
  • DAWN – DisAbled Women’s Network of Canada. (2020). Violence prevention resources. Retrieved from https://www.dawncanada.net/ppbdp-en/violence-resources-ressources-sur-la-violence/
  • Department of Justice Canada. (2015, January 07). Child Sexual Exploitation in Canada: Incidence, Sentencing and Recidivism. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jr13/p5d.html
  • Department of Justice. (2017, August 8). Age of Consent to Sexual Activity. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/other-autre/clp/faq.html
  • Department of Justice. (2017, January 11). Family Violence. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/fv-vf/index.html
  • Department of Justice. (2017, July 26). About Family Violence. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/fv-vf/about-apropos.html
  • Department of Justice. (2019). Indigenous overrepresentation in the criminal justice system. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2017/docs/jan02.pdf
  • Dictionary.com. (2020). Gaslighting. Retrieved from https://www.dictionary.com/e/pop-culture/gaslighting/
  • DiGiulio, S. (2018, July 13). What is gaslighting? And how do you know if its happening to you? Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/better/health/what-gaslighting-how-do-you-know-if-it-s-happening-ncna890866
  • Doctor, F. (2020, February 4). How to Be an Ally to FGM/C Survivors. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@farzanadoctor/how-to-be-an-ally-to-fgm-c-survivors-d92016a7d9b7
  • Dryden, B. (2020, February 14). Senate takes on slave labour with bill. Catholic News. Retrieved from https://www.catholicregister.org/item/31140-senate-takes-on-slave-labour-with-bill
  • Duggan, M. (2014, October 22). Online Harassment | Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2014/10/22/online-harassment/
  • EFRY Greater Vancouver. (2018). Supporting Children with Incarcerated Parents. Elizabeth Fry Society Canada. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5c3ff1d275f9eedfed1581c0/t/5cba02e8a4222fb30c033dfe/1555694315405/efs- supporting-children-with-incarcerated-parents-community-guide.pdf
  • Ending Violence Association of British Columbia, Vancouver, Mosaic, & Lower Mainland Multicultural Family Support Services Society. (2011). Immigrant women’s project: Safety of immigrant, refugee, and non-status women. Retrieved from http://endingviolence.org/content/uploads/2014/03/IWP_Resource_Guide_FINAL.pdf
  • ESCR-Net – International Network for Economic, Social & Cultural Rights. (2020). Overview of Parallel Reporting. Retrieved from https://www.escr-net.org/parallel-reporting/guide/overview
  • European Commission. (2020, January 07). What is gender-based violence? Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/gender-equality/gender-based-violence/what-gender-based-violence_en
  • European Institute for Gender Equality. (2020). Gender inequality. Retrieved from https://eige.europa.eu/thesaurus/terms/1181
  • European Institute for Gender Equality. (2011). Marital rape. Retrieved from https://eige.europa.eu/thesaurus/terms/1282
  • Evan Stark, “Re-presenting Battered Women: Coercive Control and the Defense of Liberty” (2012) (Paper prepared for Violence Against Women: Complex Realities and New Issues in a Changing World Conference, Montreal, 2012) [unpublished] at 7.
  • First Nations Child & Family Caring Society of Canada. (2016, May). Information Sheet First Nations Child Poverty: A Literature Review and Analysis Summary of Chapter Four. Retrieved from https://fncaringsociety.com/sites/default/files/First%20Nations%20Child%20Poverty%20-%20Chapter%204%20Information%20Sheet.pdf
  • FNCARES, Brittain, M., Auger, S., & Das, K. (2020). (Dis)placed Indigenous Youth and the Child Welfare System. Retrieved from https://fncaringsociety.com/sites/default/files/displaced_learning_guide_for_professionals_-_online.pdf
  • Fortin, J. (2018, September 23). #WhyIDidntReport: Survivors of Sexual Assault Share Their Stories After Trump Tweet – Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/23/us/why-i-didnt-report-assault-stories.html
  • Fred Victor. (2019, November 11). 8 Challenges Homeless Women Face Every Day. Retrieved from https://www.fredvictor.org/2019/08/08/lets-help-homeless-women/
  • Girls Not Brides. (2019). Child Marriage: A Form Of Violence Against Children. Retrieved from https:/www.girlsnotbrides.org/content/uploads/2019/10/Girls-Not-Brides-Child-Marriage-Violence-Against-Children-LR.pdf
  • Global Affairs Canada. (2017). Assistance International Feminist Canada’s Policy. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/assets/pdfs/iap2-eng.pdf?_ga=2.130688779.528360357.1582076596-40683143.1581826741
  • Global News. (2020, September 22). Court documents show history of N.S. gunman’s alleged crime and violence: Watch News Videos Online. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/video/7351592/court-documents-show-history-of-n-s-gunmans-alleged-crime-and-violence
  • Gollom, M. (2016, February 11). Ghomeshi defence argues testimony ‘riddled with lies,’ calls for acquittal. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/jian-ghomeshi-sexual-assault-trial-1.3443556
  • Government British Columbia. (n.d.). A New Path Forward. Retrieved from https://declaration.gov.bc.ca/
  • Government of Canada, Indigenous Services Canada. (2020, August 19). Reducing the number of Indigenous children in care. Retrieved from https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1541187352297/1541187392851
  • Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2019, October 18). Gender-based violence. Retrieved from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/en/gender-based-violence
  • Government of Canada. (2017). Canada’s National Action Plan On Women, Peace And Security 2017-2022. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/assets/pdfs/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/cnap_implementation_plans_eng.pdf
  • Government of Canada. (2017). Gender Equality: A Foundation for Peace. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/assets/pdfs/cnap-eng.pdf
  • Government of Canada. (2019, May). Implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in the Context of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women: Canada’s National Review. Retrieved from https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/ Gender/ENG_Beijing_25-Canada_National_Review_Report-FinalEng.pdf
  • Government of Canada. (2019). It’s Time: Canada’s Strategy to Prevent and Address Gender-Based Violence. Retrieved from https://cfc-swc.gc.ca/violence/strategy-strategie/report-rapport2018-en.pdf
  • Government of Canada – Women and Gender Equality. (2021, April 14). Beijing 25. Retrieved from https://women-gender-equality.canada.ca/en/commemorations-celebrations/gender-equality-week/beijing-plus-25.html
  • Government of Canada – Women and Gender Equality. (2021, April 14). Snapshot: COVID-19 and gender-based violence. Retrieved from https://women-gender-equality.canada.ca/en/gender-based-violence-knowledge-centre/snapshot-covid-19-gender-based-violence.html
  • Government UK. (2019, December 18). Slavery and human trafficking in supply chains: guidance for businesses. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/transparency-in-supply-chains-a-practical-guide
  • Gurr, J., Pajot, M., Nobbs, D., Mailloux, L., & Archambault, D. (2008). Breaking the links between poverty and violence against … Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/ breaking-the-links-between-poverty-and-violence-against-women-a-resource-guide/oclc/549274886
  • Han, J. H. J. (2009). Safety for immigrant, refugee and non-status women: A literature review. Retrieved from http://endingviolence.org/files/uploads/IWP_Lit_Review_for_website_ May_2010.pdf;
  • Harris, K. (2019, May 24). Supreme Court orders new manslaughter trial for accused in death of Cindy Gladue. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/gladue-supreme-court-indigenous-barton-trial-sexual-consent-1.5139137
  • HEAL Trafficking. (2020). Combating Disinformation. Retrieved from https://healtrafficking.org/combating-disinformation/?fbclid=IwAR1mH4_j0JIaxdbX2D5K43pcCohErbqxI1I7rR5sJie4i360-mpNLvhdHU8
  • Health Canada. (2020, February 14). Nutrition Science Research: Household Food Security Statistics. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/nutrition-science-research/food-security/household-food-security-statistics-2011-2012.html
  • HealthLinkBC, Government of British Columbia. (2020, July 20). Domestic Violence. Retrieved from https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/te7721
  • Hoard, K. C. (2019, October 29). Hundreds protest controversial Toronto Public Library event featuring Meghan Murphy. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/toronto/article-hundreds-protest-controversial-toronto-public-library-event-featuring/
  • Hoddenbagh, J., Zhang, T., & McDonald, S. (2014). An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Violent Victimization in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/victim/rr14_01/rr14_01.pdf
  • Hunt, V., Layton, D., & Prince, S. (2015, January). Why diversity matters. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/why-diversity-matters
  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act – Justice Laws Website. (2020). Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. Retrieved from https://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/i-2.5/
  • International Justice Resource Center (IJRC). (2019, October 16). Forced Sterilization of Indigenous Women in Canada. Retrieved from https://ijrcenter.org/forced-sterilization-of-indigenous-women-in-canada/
  • Inuuqatigiit Centre for Inuit Children, Youth and Families, Kinnon, D., & Evic-Carleton, R. (2016, August). SANNGINIVUT STRONG VOICES FOR STRONGER COMMUNITIES: Improving Systems and Services for Inuit Women and Children Affected by Violence: Promising Practices Report. Retrieved from http://inuuqatigiit.ca/content/uploads/2019/01/Sannginivut-Promising-Practices-Report-August-2016-FINAL.pdf
  • Jackson, H. (2019, February 12). 43 victims of labour human trafficking freed following investigation in Barrie, Wasaga Beach: police. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/4947960/labour-human-trafficking-investigation-barrie/
  • Jones, E. (2017, December 10). How many times more likely? Me Too and Black Canadian Women. Retrieved from https://www.halifaxexaminer.ca/featured/how-many-times-more-likely/
  • Justice Laws Website. (2020, November 13). Section 162.1 – Publication, etc., of an intimate image without consent, Criminal Code. Retrieved from https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/section-162.1.html
  • Kapoor, S. (2020, July 13). How To Be An Ally To Survivors. Retrieved from https://sayfty.com/how-to-be-an-ally-to-survivors/
  • Koshan, J., Randall, M., & Sheehy, E. (2017, October 27). Marital rape myths have no place in Canadian law. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/marital-rape-myths-have-no-place-in-canadian-law/article36749822/
  • Koshan, J. (2017, September 14). The Criminalisation of Marital Rape and Law Reform in Canada: A Modest Feminist Success Story in Combatting Marital Rape Myths. Chapter 5, Randall, Koshan and Nyaundi, eds, The Right to Say No: Marital Rape and Law Reform in Canada, Ghana, Kenya and Malawi (Hart Publishing, 2017), Forthcoming, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3037117
  • Lally, R. (2019, October 29). UK Considers Ways to Boost Compliance with Modern Slavery Act. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/legal-and-compliance/employment- law/pages/global-uk-modern-slavery-act-ways-to-boost-compliance.aspx
  • Lammasniemi, L. (2017, November 16). ‘White slavery’: the origins of the anti-trafficking movement. Retrieved from https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/beyond-trafficking-and-slavery/white-slavery-origins-of-anti-trafficking-movement/
  • Legislative Services Branch. (2020, February 7). Consolidated federal laws of Canada, Criminal Code. Retrieved from https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-46/
  • Logar, Rosa. (2005). The Austrian model of intervention in domestic violence cases. expert group meeting violence against women: Good practices in combating and eliminating violence against women, division for the Advancement of Women. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw-gp-2005/docs/experts/logar.dv.pdf.
  • Marshall University – Women’s Center. (2020). Rape Culture. Retrieved from https://www.marshall.edu/wcenter/sexual-assault/rape-culture/
  • Mazur, A. (2019, September 7). SAC Kingston says new Ontario response program will exclude victims of sexual assault. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/5865880/sac-kingston-ontario-response-program-sexual-assault/
  • McInnes, S. (2016, August 18). 4 things to know about women and homelessness in Canada. Retrieved from http://behindthenumbers.ca/2016/08/17/4-things-to-know-about-women-and-homelessness-in-canada/
  • McMillan, E., & Hounsell, K. (2020, April 23). Girlfriend of N.S. gunman was among his victims, but she survived | CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/gunman-restrained-girlfriend-stole-victim-vehicle-ns-1.5543194
  • Mercer, G. (2020, July 28). Nova Scotia, Ottawa now say they will support public inquiry into mass shooting. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-nova-scotia-ottawa-now-say-they-will-support-public-inquiry-into-mass/
  • Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (n.d.). Rape. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rape
  • Miller, K.L. & Du Mont, J. (2000). Countless Abused Women: Homeless and Inadequately Housed. Canadian women’s studies = Les cahiers de la femme. 20. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259558053_Countless_Abused_Women_Homeless_and_Inadequately_Housed
  • Ministry of Welfare. (2012). Male Violence against Women in Intimate Relationships in Iceland – Report of the Minister of Welfare (Excerpts). Retrieved from https://www.government.is/media/velferdarraduneyti-media/media/rit-og-skyrslur2012/Ofbeldi_gegn_konum_enska_feb_2012.pdf
  • Moreau, G. (2019, April 17). Canadian residential facilities for victims of abuse, 2017/2018. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/ article/00007-eng.htm
  • National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls – MMIWG. (2019). Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. Retrieved from https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/final-report/
  • National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. (2018). Executive Summary: From The Interim Report: Our Women And Girls Are Sacred. Retrieved from https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/content/uploads/2018/05/MMIWG-Executive-Summary-ENG.pdf
  • National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. (2019). Executive Summary: Reclaiming Power And Place. Retrieved from http://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/content/uploads/2019/06/Executive_Summary.pdf
  • Native Women’s Association – NWAC. (2015). Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls. Retrieved from https:/www.nwac.ca/content/uploads/2015/05/Fact_ Sheet_Missing_and_Murdered_Aboriginal_Women_and_Girls.pdf
  • Native Women’s Association of Canada – NWAC, Roudometkina, A., & Wakeford, K. (2018, June 15). Trafficking of Indigenous Women and Girls in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/JUST/Brief/BR10002955/br-external/ NativeWomensAssociationOfCanada-e.pdf
  • Native Women’s Association of Canada – NWAC. (2016). What is Gladue? Retrieved from https://www.nwac.ca/content/uploads/2015/05/What-Is-Gladue.pdf
  • Novac, S. (2007, December). Research Bulletin #40: Family Violence and Homelessness Connections and Dynamics. Centre for Urban and Community Studies. Retrieved from http://www.urbancentre.utoronto.ca/pdfs/researchbulletins/CUCSRB40_Novac_FVHCD.pdf
  • OCASI – Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants. (2020, July 6). What is domestic abuse? Retrieved from https://settlement.org/ontario/health/family-health/domestic-abuse/what-is-domestic-abuse/
  • OCASI – Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants. (2015). Taking Action on Violence Against Women: A plan for Ontario. Retrieved from https://ocasi.org/message-executive-director-march-2015
  • Odette, F. and Rajan, D. (November 2013). Violence Against Women with DisAbilities and Deaf Women: An Overview. Learning Network Brief (12). London, Ontario: Learning Network, Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/violence-agasint-womendisabilities-deaf-women
  • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights – OHCHR. (2016). Intersex Awareness Day – Wednesday 26 October. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20739&LangID=E
  • Ontario Native Womens Association – ONWA. (2018). Journey to Safe Spaces: Indigenous Anti- Human Trafficking Engagement Report. Retrieved from http://www.onwa.ca/upload/documents/ onwa-iaht-liaisons-project-report-2017-2.pdf
  • (2010). It’s Never Okay: An action plan to stop sexual violence and harrassment, Progress Update, 2016-2017. Retrieved from https://files.ontario.ca/mi-2010_svhap_progress_report_en.pdf
  • Parrott, Z. (2019). Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people
  • Pate, K. (2018). Policy4Women: Public Space, Public engagement. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5c3ff1d275f9eedfed1581c0/t/5cb0877aec212de7c2d9647e/1555072891317/P4W_BN_IncarcerationRacializedWomen_Accessible.pdf
  • Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada. (2020, June 03). Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada Report on Proceedings and Recommendations of MMIWG Calls for Justice Engagement Session January 15-16, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.pauktuutit.ca/news/pauktuutit-inuit-women-of-canada-report-on-proceedings-and-recommendations-of-mmiwg-calls-for-justice-engagement-session-january-15-16-2020/
  • Perez, S., Johnson, D. M., & Wright, C. V. (2012). The Attenuating Effect of Empowerment on IPV-Related PTSD Symptoms in Battered Women Living in Domestic Violence Shelters. Violence Against Women, 18(1), 102–117: 103. doi: 10.1177/1077801212437348
  • Plan International. (2019). Gender-based violence. Retrieved from https://plancanada.ca/gender-based-violence#:~:text=Gender-based violence (GBV),their inherent rights and freedoms
  • Planned Parenthood. (n.d.). Gender Identity & Roles: Feminine Traits & Stereotypes. Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/gender-identity/sex-gender-identity/what-are-gender-roles-and-stereotypes
  • Polaris Project. (2020, October 29). Human Trafficking Rumors. Retrieved from https://polarisproject.org/human-trafficking-rumors/?fbclid=IwAR2Upd47EVpLjfFR2sUV-5aN67zGSK9Igg6EpMPU94LDMna61GkVa5HPVXI
  • Province of Ontario. (2018, March 1). Ontario Launches New Strategy to End Gender-Based Violence. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/owd/en/2018/03/ontario-launches-new-strategy-to-end-gender-based-violence.html
  • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2016, October 21). The Chief Public Health Officer’s Report on the State of Public Health in Canada 2016 – A Focus on Family Violence in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/chief-public-health-officer-reports-state-public-health-canada/2016-focus-family-violence-canada.html
  • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2018, May 31). Stop Family Violence. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/stop-family-violence/problem-canada.html
  • Public Health Canada, BC Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health, Atlantic Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health, Prairie Women’s Health Centre of Excellence, The Source/ La Source, & SGBA. (2012). Women and Healthy Living in Canada. Retrieved from https://cdn.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/diff/ace-women-health/WHL/ACEWH_whl_7.pdf
  • Public Safety Canada. (2018). 2018 Human Trafficking Consultations Report. Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2018-hmn-trffckng-cnslttns-rprt/2018-hmn-trffckng-cnslttns-rprt-en.pdf
  • Public Safety Canada. (2019). National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking 2019-2024. Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2019-ntnl-strtgy-hmnn-trffc/2019-ntnl-strtgy-hmnn-trffc-en.pdf
  • Public Safety Canada. (2020, October 08). Child Sexual Exploitation on the Internet. Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/cntrng-crm/chld-sxl-xplttn-ntrnt/index-en.aspx
  • Rainbow Health Ontario. (2016, July). Exhibit: National Inquiry MMIWG – Evidence Brief – Two-Spirit and LGBTQ Indigenous Health. Retrieved from https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/content/uploads/2019/06/P02-03P01P0301_Iqaluit_Exh_33_Redfern_Lightfoot.pdf
  • Reitmanova, S., & Henderson, R. (2016). Aboriginal Women and the Canadian Criminal Justice System: Examining the Aboriginal Justice Strategy through the Lens of Structural Social Work (2nd ed., Vol. 17). University of Windsor. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5c3ff1d275f9eedfed1581c0/t/5cb08b2beb3931387789f77d/1555073840252/ Aboriginal women and justice system.pdf
  • Research and Statistics Division. (2017). Indigenous overrepresentation in the criminal justice system. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2017/docs/jan02.pdf
  • Roebuck, J., Mason, R., & Rochon, P. (2019, March 5). There’s a health gap in Canada – and women are falling through it. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-theres-a-health-gap-in-canada-and-women-are-falling-through-it/
  • Roudometkina, A., & Wakeford, K, Native Women’s Association of Canada – NWAC. (2018, June 15). Trafficking of Indigenous Women and Girls in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/JUST/Brief/BR10002955/br-external/NativeWomensAssociationOfCanada-e.pdf
  • Ruiz, R. (2020, April 07). Why you need to know what ‘misogynoir’ means right now. Retrieved from https://mashable.com/article/misogynoir-black-women-sexism-racism/
  • Sareen, A. (2016, June 05). 19 Horribly Sexist Things Said By Some Of The ‘Greatest’ Men Who Ever Lived. Retrieved from https://www.scoopwhoop.com/Sexist-Quotes-By-Great-Men/
  • Sarkis, S. (2017, January 22). 11 Warning Signs of Gaslighting. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/here-there-and-everywhere/201701/11-warning-signs-gaslighting
  • Savage, L., & Cotter, A. (2019). Perceptions related to gender-based violence, gender equality, and gender expression. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-005-x/2019001/article/00001-eng.pdf?st=oJ-gsOTo
  • Scheim, A., Jackson, R., James, L., Dopler, T., Pyne, J., & Bauer, G. (2013). Barriers to well-being for Aboriginal gender-diverse people: Results from the Trans PULSE Project in Ontario, Canada. Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care. 6. 108-120. 10.1108/EIHSC-08-2013-0010.
  • Smith, M., Segal, J., & Robinson, L. (2019, December 13). Burnout Prevention and Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/burnout-prevention-and-recovery.htm
  • Social Development Canada. (2019, May 23). Labour Standards. Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/services/labour-standards/reports/sexual-harassment.html
  • South Asian Legal Clinic of Ontario – SALCO, Anis, M., Konanur, S., & Mattoo, D. (2013, August). Who / If / When to Marry: The Incidence of Forced Marriage in Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.sawc.org/content/uploads/2013/01/SALCO-Who-If-When-to-Marry-The-Incidence-of-Forced-Marriage-in-Ontario-Sep-2013.pdf
  • Sowter, D. (2019, December 27). Coercive Control: What Should a Good Lawyer Do? Retrieved from http://www.slaw.ca/2019/12/27/coercive-control-what-should-a-good-lawyer-do/#_ftn6
  • Statistics Canada (2015). Criminal victimization in Canada, 2014. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14241-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada: The Daily. (2015, January 15). Family Violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2013. Retrieved from https:/www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/150115/dq150115a-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada: The Daily. (2018). Trafficking in persons in Canada, 2016. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/daily-quotidien/180627/dq180627g-eng.pdf?st=B5NOWY6g
  • Statistics Canada: The Daily. (2019, December 5). Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/daily-quotidien/191205/ dq191205b-eng.pdf?st=w2zTKIwr
  • Statistics Canada. (2010). The Nature of Sexual Offences. Retrieved from at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/2008019/findings-resultats/nature-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (2013, February 25). Measuring violence against women: Statistical trends. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.pdf?st=jfW72YZK
  • Statistics Canada. (2015, November 30). Section 1: Overview of family violence. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2014001/article/14114/section01-eng.htm#a6
  • Statistics Canada. (2015, November 30). Section 3: Intimate partner violence. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11805/11805-3-eng.htm#r12
  • Statistics Canada. (2015, November 30). Women and Education. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11542-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (2015, November 30). Women and Health. Retrieved from https://www150. statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11543-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (2019, April 17). Residential facilities for victims of abuse in Canada, 2017/2018. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2019027-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (2019, December 12). Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2018. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/191212/dq191212b-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (2019, December 12). Section 2: Police-reported intimate partner violence in Canada, 2018. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00018/02-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (2019, December 5). Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/191205/dq191205b-eng.htm
  • Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table: 17-10-0005-01 Population estimates on July 1st, by age and sex. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.25318/1710000501-eng
  • Status of Women Canada, Government of Canada. (2020, October 28). About Gender-Based Violence. Retrieved from https://cfc-swc.gc.ca/violence/knowledge-connaissance/about-apropos-en.html
  • Stop Street Harassment. (n.d.). Definitions. Retrieved from http://www.stopstreetharassment.org/resources/definitions/
  • Suonpää, K., & Savolainen, J. (2019). When a Woman Kills Her Man: Gender and Victim Precipitation in Homicide. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(11), 2398–2413. doi: 10.1177/0886260519834987
  • Swift, J., & Gould, H. (2021, January 11). Not An Object: On Sexualization and Exploitation of Women and Girls. Retrieved from https://www.unicefusa.org/stories/not-object-sexualization-and-exploitation-women-and-girls/30366
  • Tarraf, D., Sanou, D., & Giroux, I. (2017, February 15). Immigration and Food Insecurity: The Canadian Experience-A Literature Review. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/people-s-movements-in-the-21st-century-risks-challenges-and-benefits/immigration-and-food-insecurity-the-canadian-experience-a-literature-review
  • The 519. (2020). The 519’s Glossary of Terms, facilitating shared understandings around equity, diversity, inclusion and awareness. The 519. Retrieved from https://www.the519.org/education-training/glossary
  • The Conference Board of Canada. (2018, April). Gender Inequities Persist in Canadian Post- Secondary Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from https://conferenceboard.ca/(X(1)S(jober3w3nfwczqudtumejrrq))/press/newsrelease/2018/04/19/gender-inequities-persist-in-canadian-post-secondary-education-and-the-workforce
  • The Conversation. (2019, August 28). The politics behind Ontario’s sex-ed curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.macleans.ca/opinion/the-politics-behind-ontarios-sex-ed-curriculum/
  • The Equality Effect, Venkatesh, V. (n.d.). The Legal Treatment of Marital Rape in Canada Bibliography. Retrieved from http://theequalityeffect.org/pdfs/legaltreatmentbibliography.pdf
  • The Homeless hub. (n.d.). Single Women. Retrieved from https://www.homelesshub.ca/about-homelessness/population-specific/single-women
  • The Homeless hub. (n.d.). Toward a poverty elimination strategy for the City of Toronto. Retrieved from https://homelesshub.ca/resource/toward-poverty-elimination-strategy-city-toronto
  • The Nation. (2007, June 29). Patriarchy: A Primer for Men. Retrieved from https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/patriarchy-primer-men/
  • The Salvation Army. (n.d.). Adult Programs – London: The Salvation Army Correctional and Justice Services. Retrieved from https://www.cjslondon.ca/london#JohnSchool
  • The World Bank. (2018, August 30). Fact Sheet: Update on Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Development Projects. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/factsheet/2018/08/30/fact-sheet-update-on-addressing-gender-based-violence-in-development-projects
  • Thomson, G. (2018, October 2). What is the AODA? Retrieved from https://aoda.ca/what-is-the-aoda/
  • Townson, M. (2009, September 8). Canadian women on their own are poorest of the poor. Retrieved from https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/canadian-women-their-own-are-poorest-poor
  • Troian, M. (2017, February). Unresolved: Cheyenne Santana Marie Fox. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/missingandmurdered/mmiw/profiles/cheyenne-fox
  • Troian, M., & Brandson, A. (2019, March 11). First Nation counts nearly two dozen missing and murdered women. APTN National News. Retrieved from https://aptnnews.ca/2019/03/08/first-nation-counts-nearly-two-dozen-missing-and-murdered-women/
  • Trudell, A.L. & Whitmore, E. (2020). Pandemic meets Pandemic: Understanding the Impacts of COVID19 on Gender-Based Violence Services and Survivors in Canada. Ottawa & London, ON: Ending Violence Association of Canada & Anova.
  • Tutton, M. (2020, May 13). Neighbour reported N.S. mass shooter’s domestic violence, weapons to police | CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/mass-shooting-nova-scotia-firearms-gun-violence-1.5567330
  • Tutton, M. (2020, October 22). N.S. mass shooting probe will include look at RCMP actions, gender-based violence. Retrieved from https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/n-s-mass-shooting-probe-will-include-look-at-rcmp-actions-gender-based-violence-1.5156756
  • Tutty, Leslie & Ogden, Cindy & Giurgiu, Bianca & Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian. (2014). I Built My House of Hope: Abused Women and Pathways Into Homelessness. Violence against women. 19. 10.1177/1077801213517514.
  • Ullman, S. E., & Brecklin, L. R. (2002). Sexual Assault History and Suicidal Behavior in a National Sample of Women. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32(2), 117–130: 117. doi: 10.1521/suli.32.2.117.24398
  • United Nations. (1995). Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Retrieved from https://beijing20.unwomen.org/~/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/csw/pfa_e_final_web.pdf
  • UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2020). Gender stereotyping. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/women/wrgs/pages/genderstereotypes.aspx
  • UN SDGs. (2020). Communications materials – United Nations Sustainable Development. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/news/communications-material/
  • UN Women. (n.d.). A brief overview of the United Nations and violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/v-overview.htm
  • UN Women. (2020). CSW64 / Beijing 25: Preparations: Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/en/csw/csw64-2020/preparations
  • UN Women. (2015). The Beijing Platform for Action: Inspiration then and now. Retrieved from https://beijing20.unwomen.org/en/about
  • UN Women. (2020). The Beijing 12 critical areas of concern deconstructed. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/csw59/feature-stories#environment
  • UNICEF. (2020, April 14). Children at increased risk of harm online during global COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/children-increased-risk-harm-online-during-global-covid-19-pandemic
  • UNICEF. (2020, April). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Its Implications for Protecting Children Online. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/documents/covid-19-and-implications-protecting-children-online?utm_campaign=coronavirus&utm_source=referral&utm_medium=media-
  • UNICEF, The Body Shop International, & United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children. (2006). Behind Closed Doors: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/protection/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf
  • United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime – UNODC. (2018). Global study on homicide: Gender- related killing of women and girls. UNODC. Retrieved from, https://www.unodc.org/documents/ data-and-analysis/GSH2018/GSH18_Gender-related_killing_of_women_and_girls.pdf
  • UN Refugee Agency. (2020). Gender-based Violence. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/sexual-and-gender-based-violence.html
  • Urban Dictionary. (2015, July 6). Misogynoir. Retrieved from https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=misogynoir
  • Vecchio, K. (2019). Surviving Abuse And Building Resilience—A Study Of Canada’S Systems Of Shelters And Transition Houses Serving Women And Children Affected By Violence. House of Commons Canada. Retrieved from https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/ FEWO/Reports/RP10429173/feworp15/feworp15-e.pdf
  • Warnke, M. B. (2017, October 16). How To Be A Male Ally To Survivors Of Sexual Assault & Harassment. Retrieved from https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2017/10/176776/how-to-be-an-ally-sexual-assault#slide-1
  • Wathen, C. N., MacGregor, J. C. D., & MacQuarrie, B. J. (2018). Relationships Among Intimate Partner Violence, Work, and Health. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(14), 2268–2290. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515624236
  • WAVAW Rape Crisis Centre. (2019, March 19). What is Rape Culture? Retrieved from https://www.wavaw.ca/what-is-rape-culture/
  • Western University Learning Network, Alberta’s Council of Women’s Shelters, BC Society of Transition Houses, Manitoba Association of Women’s Shelters, Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses, PEI Family Violence Prevention Services, Provincial Association of Transition Houses and Services of Saskatchewan, and Women’s Shelters Canada. (2020). Intimate Partner Violence in a Pandemic: COVID-19-Related Controlling Behaviours. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/infographics/covid19controllingbehaviours/index.html
  • Western University Learning Network. (2020). Keep Children Safe from Online Sexual Exploitation & Abuse During the Pandemic. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/backgrounders/covid-children-online-safety/index.html
  • Woman Abuse Council of Toronto – WomanACT. (2018, May). Canada’s Human Rights- Based Approach to Housing: A Violence against Women perspective. http://www.womanact.ca/uploads/1/8/6/8/18687524/__final_womanact_response_to_nhs_consultation_on_rights-based_approach_to_housing.pdf
  • Women and Gender Equality Canada. (2018). It’s Time: Canada’S Strategy To Prevent And Address Gender-Based Violence. Retrieved from https://cfc-swc.gc.ca/violence/strategy-strategie/report-rapport2019-en.pdf
  • Women Deliver. (2020). Boys and Men as partners for advancing gender equality. Retrieved from http://womendeliver.org/content/uploads/2020/01/Women-Deliver-Male-Engagement-Infographic.pdf
  • Women for Women International, & Ott, M.. (2017, November 21). Series: What Does That Mean? Gender-based Violence: Women for Women International. Retrieved from https://www.womenforwomen.org/blogs/series-what-does-mean-gender-based-violence#:~:text=Gender-based violence (GBV),implications than a simple definition.
  • Women’s Aid Federation of England. (2020, August 13). Coercive control. Retrieved from https://www.womensaid.org.uk/information-support/what-is-domestic-abuse/coercive-control/
  • Women’s Center, Marshall University. (n.d.). Rape Culture. Retrieved from https://www.marshall.edu/wcenter/sexual-assault/rape-culture/
  • Women’s Legal Education & Action Fund (LEAF). (2020, October 25). The Law of Consent in Sexual Assault. Retrieved from https://www.leaf.ca/the-law-of-consent-in-sexual-assault/
  • Women’s Refugee Commission, & International Rescue Committee. (2019). Building Capacity for Disability Inclusion in Gender-Based Violence Programming in Humanitarian Settings – Tool 5: Pre- and post-training test for the GBV and disability training module. Retrieved from https://vivien-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/GBV-disability-Tool-5-Pre-and-post-training-test-for-the-GBV-and-disability-training-module.pdf
  • World Health Organization – WHO. (2020, February 3). Female genital mutilation. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/female-genital-mutilation
  • World Health Organization. (2017, November 29). Violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women
  • Zhang, T., J. Hoddenbagh, S. McDonald and K. Scrim. (2013). An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009. Department of Justice Canada. Ottawa. Retrieved from http://canada.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/date.cfm